Friday, December 8, 2023

Exosomal miR-146a-5p derived from human umbilical twine mesenchymal stem cells can alleviate antiphospholipid antibody-induced trophoblast harm and placental dysfunction by regulating the TRAF6/NF-κB axis | Journal of Nanobiotechnology


Affected person inclusion standards and pattern assortment

A complete of 25 sufferers with OAPS who met Sydney standards [1] and visited the obstetrics division of Shandong Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Shandong First College have been integrated into our examine. Sufferers with infections, inflammatory problems or malignancies have been excluded. Gestational age-matched pregnant girls with detrimental aPLs, who had no associated being pregnant issues and had at the least one wholesome being pregnant, have been thought of as regular wholesome controls. The main points of all of the recruited contributors are introduced in Further file 1: Desk S1. Peripheral venous blood samples from each regular wholesome controls and sufferers with OAPS have been collected in vacuum tubes with out EDTA, left at a room temperature (RT) of 20–26 ℃ for at the least 30 min, following centrifuged at 3000 × g for 15 min. Lastly, the supernatant was collected gently and sterilized for subsequent experiments.

Extraction, tradition, and identification of hucMSCs

Three umbilical cords have been collected from wholesome newborns delivered through the cesarean part on the Shandong Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Shandong First Medical College. Huc-MSCs have been extracted from human umbilical twine with the tissue explants adherent methodology. Briefly, umbilical cords obtained underneath sterile circumstances have been reduce into small items (2–3 cm) after removing of arteries and veins. These items have been additional minced to tiny chunks with a dimension of roughly 2–3 mm. Afterwards, the obtained pellets have been suspended in DMEM/F12 (Gibco, Grand Island, NY, USA) tradition medium with 10% FBS, after which seeded in a T25 flask. The cells are cultured at 37 °C in a CO2 incubator till they attain fusion.

The passage 3 (P3) hucMSCs have been inoculated right into a 12-well plate (1 × 104 cells per properly). Per the producer’s directions, 1 mL of adipogenic, osteogenic, or chondrogenic differentiation full tradition medium was added to every properly (Haixing Biotechnology Co., LTD, Suzhou, China). After 3 weeks, the formation of fats droplets, calcium nodules, and cartilage elements was noticed underneath a microscope (Olympus, Japan).

HucMSCs have been seeded in 96-well cell tradition plates. Following fixation of the cells with 4% paraformaldehyde and subsequent washing with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), they have been then sealed utilizing goat serum. Subsequently the cells have been incubated in a single day with major antibodies CD105 and CD45 (1:100 dilution; Proteintech, San Diego, CA, USA). The subsequent day, hucMSCs have been washed thrice after which uncovered to a secondary antibody (Alexa Fluor 594/488-conjugated goat anti-rabbit IgG, 1:100 dilution) (Boster, USA) underneath RT for 1 h at nighttime. Subsequent, after washing with PBS thrice, hucMSCs have been incubated in DAPI answer (Boster, USA) for 8 min. Subsequently, the expression ranges of CD105 and CD45 on the surfaces of hucMSC have been noticed utilizing an inverted fluorescence microscope (Olympus, Japan).

The P3 hucMSCs have been digested right into a single-cell suspension, rinsed thrice with precooled PBS, and resuspended into 1.5 mL Eppendorf tubes with a focus of 1 × 105 cells/l00 μL. Subsequent, the labeled antibodies (PE-CD105, FITC-CD90, PE-CD44, PE-CD34, FITC-CD45, and APC-HLA-DR), and their respective isotype management antibodies (Proteintech) have been added into every Eppendorf tube and left to incubate for a period of 20 min. Subsequently, the cells have been rinsed thrice with 500 μL of PBS and suspended in 100 μL of PBS. Cell detection was carried out utilizing the Accuri C6 stream cytometer (BD Biosciences, San Jose, CA, USA) and knowledge evaluation was conduccted utilizing the FlowJo software program.

Extraction and characterization of hucMSC-exos

The hucMSCs within the logarithmic development section, particularly P3–P5, have been cultured for 48 h within the serum-free DMEM/F12 medium (Gibco). In response to a beforehand established standardization precept for exosome isolation and identification, hucMSC-exos have been extracted from the hucMSC supernatant utilizing ultracentrifugation as illustrated in Further file 1: Determine S1. This process has been peciously established [75, 76]. Moreover, the morphology of the exosomes was examined by TEM (HT7700, Hitachi, Japan), whereas the dimensions and focus of particles have been measured utilizing NTA on a NanoSight (Xiuyue Biol, Jinan, China).

Exosome labeling, internalization, and tracing

For the in vitro experiment, exosomes have been labeled with PKH-67 (MIDI67, Midi Equipment, Sigma-Aldrich, Burlington, MA, USA) as per the producer’s suggestions. Fluorescent labeled hucMSC-exos (100 ug/mL) have been added into the supernatant of HTR8/SVneo cells for twenty-four h. Following fixation in 4% paraformaldehyde at RT for 15 min, the cytoskeleton was marked utilizing phalloidin-iFluor594 (ab176757, Abcam, Cambridge, United Kingdom) and the nuclei have been stained with DAPI (Boster). The fluorescence alerts have been detected and photographed utilizing a Zeiss CellDiscoverer 7 with ZEN 3.1 skilled evaluation software program to establish whether or not the cells may take up the exosomes.

For in vivo visualization, hucMSC-exos have been labeled with DiR (Life Applied sciences, Carlsbad, CA, USA). Briefly, purified exosomes have been incubated within the DiR answer (7.0 mL of seven.5 µM DiR dilution in PBS) for 20 min underneath RT in darkish. DiR-labeled exosomes have been then injected into the tail veins of pregnant mice. After in the future and three consecutive days of exosomal intervention respectively, the 2 pregnant mice have been repeatedly anesthetized with isoflurane, and pictures have been obtained utilizing the IVIS SpectrumCT In Vivo Imaging System (PerkinElmer, Waltham, MA, USA).

Preparation of antiphospholipid antibody immunoglobulin G and anti-β2GPI antibody

aPL-IgG was purified from regular wholesome controls and sufferers with APS utilizing NAb™ Protein A Plus Spin Equipment (Thermo Fisher Scientific). The collected sera have been handed by a Protein A Agarose Column thrice in accordance with the producer’s illustration. IgG purified from regular wholesome controls and sufferers with APS was named NHIgG and aPL, respectively. The endotoxins within the purified IgG have been detected utilizing the Chromogenic Endotoxin Quantitation Equipment (Thermo Fisher Scientific). Moreover, anti-β2GPI antibody used for the animal experiment was developed in collaboration with Affinity Biosciences, as beforehand described [53]. Technical route of antibody preparation is proven in Further file 1: Determine S3. In our experiment, aPL-IgG extracted from human serum was used for cell experiments in vitro, and the anti-β2GPI antibody was used for animal experiments in vivo.

EdU assay

HTR8/SVneo cells have been inoculated within the corning 3599 cell tradition plate at a focus of 8 × 103 cells per properly. After adhesion, cells have been handled with NHIgG or aPL (200 µg/mL) for twenty-four h, and the exosome therapy group was incubated with hucMSC-exos (100 µg/mL) for twenty-four h after aPL therapy. The completely different processing teams have been named as follows: NC, NHIgG, aPL, and aPL + EXO. To evaluate the cells’ potential to proliferate, the Beyoclick™ Edu Cell Proliferation Equipment Alexa Fluor 647 (Beyotime, China) was employed. Cell proliferation was noticed and analyzed utilizing a Zeiss Cell Discoverer 7 geared up ZEN 3.1 skilled evaluation software program.

Apoptosis evaluation

Apoptosis of HTR8/SVneo cells within the completely different intervention teams was detected utilizing the Annexin V-FITC/PI Apoptosis Detection Equipment (BD Biosciences) on an Accuri C6 stream cytometer (BD Biosciences). Furthermore, in situ apoptosis in mouse placental sections was detected utilizing a TUNEL Shiny Inexperienced Apoptosis Detection Equipment (A112-03, Vazyme, China), and fluorescence alerts have been noticed utilizing a NIKON digital sight DS-FI2 (Nikon, Japan). Apoptosis in placental tissue was illustrated by TUNEL optimistic cell ratios in 5 randomly chosen fields of view.

Cell migration and invasion assays

The migration potential of the HTR8/SVneo cells was detected in a 24-well Transwell cell tradition plate (Corning, NY, USA). Cells from completely different teams have been inoculated within the higher chamber diluted with 200 μL of the serum-free medium at a focus of 5 × 104 cells/properly, and 600 μL of full medium have been supplemented to the decrease chamber. After a 24 h incubation interval, the cells have been mounted and stained. 5 fields of view have been randomly chosen to rely the variety of cells passing by the membrane underneath an optical microscope. For the invasion experiment, the higher chamber of the insert was coated with 60 μL of Matrigel (Sigma Aldrich) at a working focus of 1 mg/mL earlier than seeding cells.

miRNA microarray chip screening and mRNA sequencing

Whole RNA was extracted from hucMSC-exos for miRNA microarray chip screening, carried out by LC-Bio Know-how (Hangzhou, China). Moreover, Illumina Hiseq 2000/2500 was used to sequence the constructed library. Whole RNA was extracted from the aPL and aPL + EXO teams utilizing TRIzol (AG21101, Correct Biotechnology, Hunan, China) for mRNA sequencing carried out by LC-Bio Know-how (Hangzhou, China).

Twin-luciferase reporter gene assay

The focusing on relationship between miR-146a-5p and TRAF6 and the connection web site between miR-146a-5p and TRAF6 3’UTR have been calculated utilizing the targetscan software program. The WT and MUT 3’UTR of TRAF6 have been synthesized and linked to the luciferase reporter vector PHY-811 synthesized by Beijing Syngentech (Beijing, China). When the HEK293T cells with good development standing reached at roughly 80% cell fusion, cells have been transfected with mixtures of TRAF6-WT or TRAF6-MUT plasmids with NC or miR-146a-5p mimic, respectively. After 24 h, a Twin-Luciferase Reporter Assay System (Promega, E1910, WI, USA) was used to detected the luciferase exercise. All experiments have been carried out in triplicates.

Quantitative real-time polymerase chain response (qRT-PCR)

Whole RNA was extracted from exosomes utilizing the miRNeasy Mini Equipment (Qiagen), and miRNA first strand cDNA was synthesized utilizing the miRNA 1st Strand cDNA Synthesis Equipment (AG11716, Correct Biotechnology). Moreover, RNA was extracted from cells utilizing TRIzol (AG21101, Correct Biotechnology), cDNA synthesis was carried out on the ABI 7500 Actual-Time PCR system (Utilized Biosystems, Waltham, MA, USA) utilizing an Evo M-MLV Combine Equipment containing gDNA Clear reagents (AG11734, Correct Biotechnology). Amplification was then carried out on a LightCycler 480 II utilizing an SYBR Inexperienced qPCR Equipment (AG11701, Correct Biotechnology). Moreover, the relative expression degree of mRNA was decided utilizing the two−ΔΔCT method, and U6 and TUBULIN have been used as inner controls. All primers utilized in examine have been offered by Correct Biotechnology (Further file 1: Desk S2).

Cell transfection

HTR8/SVneo cells have been transfected with miR-146a-5p mimic or inhibitor (100 nM) bought from Beijing Syngentech (Beijing, China) following the rules for lipofectamine 2000 (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA, USA). Cells have been grouped as NC mimic-, miR-146a-5p mimic-, NC inhibitor-, and miR-146a-5p inhibitor-treated teams. Moreover, HTR8/SVneo cells pretreated with or with out aPL have been transfected with siTRAF6 or siNC (50 nM) bought from Beijing Syngentech (Beijing, China) following the directions for Lipofectamine 3000 (Invitrogen). The RNAi sequences utilized for cell transfection can been obtained in Further file 1: Desk S3.

Animal mannequin of antiphospholipid antibody syndrome being pregnant and therapeutic experiments

In vivo animal experiments have been carried out utilizing C57BL/6 J mice (aged 8 weeks) bought from Weitong Lihua (Beijing, China). All mice have been housed in a breeding facility that was free from particular pathogens, following a 12-h cycle of sunshine and darkness, and sustaining appropriate temperature and humidity circumstances. Feminine and male mice within the reproductive interval mated at 18:00 on the day before today in a ratio of two:1 or 3:1, and the vaginal plugs have been checked at 8:00 the following day; if current, the mice have been counted as E0.5 after which randomly distributed into three teams. At E0.5 and E7.5, the OAPS group was administered a tail vein injection of 100 μg/mouse anti-β2GPI antibody, whereas the exosome intervention group obtained a day by day intravenous injection of fifty μg/mouse hucMSC-exos from E4.5 to E10.5 to make sure their sustained presence and efficacy in vivo. The sham group was administered sterile saline intravenously, with the amount of injection being similar to that of the anti-β2GPI antibody and hucMSC-exos. At E14.5, the mice have been euthanized by dislocation of cervical vertebra following the American Veterinary Medical Affiliation (AVMA) Tips for the Euthanasia of Animals (2020) and the uteri have been dissected. The weights of embryos and placentas have been measured, and the FRF (fetal resorption frequency) was calculated as the proportion of fetal resorptions out of the full variety of all fetuses. Lastly, placental specimens have been separated and saved at −80 °C or mounted in formaldehyde.

Western blot

All proteins extracted from the exosomes, cells, and placentas have been separated utilizing sodium dodecyl sulfate–polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (Epizyme, Shanghai, China) with corresponding proportions, following the precept of equal mass and volum. Subsequent, the polyvinylidene fluoride membranes (Millipore, MA, USA) containing proteins have been sealed in a protein-free fast-blocking answer at RT for 20 min and incubated with the first antibodies in a single day. The next day, after incubated with the corresponding secondary antibodies, the protein bands have been photographed utilizing an Amersham Imager 600 system (GE, Boston, MA, USA), and grey ranges of the protein bands have been decided and quantified utilizing ImageJ software program.

The knowledge of antibodies: CD81 (ab109201, Abcam), TSG101 (ab125011, Abcam), GM130 (ab52649, Abcam), OCT4 (ab181557, Abcam), CD63 (ab134045, Abcam), BAX (ab128733, Abcam), BCL2 (ab182858, Abcam), Cleaved-CASP3 (#9664S, CST), IL-1β (ab254360, Abcam), IL-18 (ab191860, Abcam; ab207324, Abcam), TRAF6 (ab33915, Abcam), NF-κB p65 (ab32536, Abcam), and ACTIN (#3700S, CST).

Hematoxylin and eosin and immunohistochemistry staining

After mounted and dehydrated successively, the paraffin-embedded placental tissue blocks have been sliced thinly (4 μm) and subjected to H&E staining for histological examination.

For immunohistochemistry staining, the slices underwent dewaxing and hydration in ethanol options of various concentrations (100%, 85%, and 75%) for a period of 5 min every. Afterwards, the slides have been positioned in EDTA antigen retrieval answer (pH 8.0) to restore the antigens, after which submerged in 3% hydrogen peroxide to dam endogenous peroxidase. Following incubation in a 5% answer of bovine serum albumin (BSA) for 30 min, the sections have been incubated with the first antibodies in a single day at 4 °C. Subsequently, a secondary antibody and streptavidin-HRP (BioCare Medical) have been utilized, and the response was visualized utilizing DAB peroxidase substrate reagent. Lastly, the sections have been stained with hematoxylin and imaged utilizing a NIKON digital sight DS-FI2 (Nikon, Japan). MVD was calculated and noticed underneath a lightweight microscope for every part. The rely models for blood vessels have been decided by counting cells or cell clusters that expressed CD31. Utilizing a low magnification (40 ×), we chosen three areas with the best MVD; then using a excessive magnification (200 ×), we tailed the amount of CD31 optimistic cells or cell clusters in 5 visible fields and calculated the typical because the MVD for the specimen. Relative common density was quantified utilizing ImageJ software program.

The antibodies informations: CD31 (ab28364, 1:50, Abcam), TRAF6 (ab137452, 1:100, Abcam), and NF-κB p65 (ab32536, 1:1000, Abcam).

Immunofluorescence staining

HTR8/SVneo cells underneath completely different interventions have been successively mounted, permeabilized and blocked. The cells have been then incubated with major antibodies for no less than 18 h. The next day, cells have been incubated with a secondary antibody at nighttime. Instantly after the cytoskeleton and cell nucleus have been stained with α-Clean Muscle Actin Rabbit Alexa Fluor 555 conjugated (#60839, CST) and DAPI (Boster) respectively, the fluorescence sign was photographed utilizing a Zeiss Cell Discoverer 7 with ZEN 3.1 skilled evaluation software program.

Immunofluorescence staining was carried out to evaluate the protein ranges of the mouse placental tissue. The fluorescent graphics have been collected utilizing a NIKON digital sight DS-FI2 (Nikon, Japan). The relative fluorescence depth was quantified utilizing ImageJ software program.

The first antibodies used for immunofluorescence: Ki67 (ab15580, 0.5 µg/mL, Abcam), CD31 (ab28364, 1:50, Abcam), TRAF6 (ab137452, 1:100, Abcam), NF-κB p65 (ab32536, 1:1000, Abcam), and Alexa Fluor 488/594-conjugated goat anti-rabbit IgG (1:100, Bioss, Woburn, MA, USA).

Fluorescence in situ hybridization

The placental tissue slices embedded in paraffin have been heated at 65 °C for two h, dewaxed in xylene, and rehydrated in a spread of graded ethanol. After incubating in proteinase Okay working answer (20 µg/mL) at 37 ℃ for permeabilization, the sections have been hybridized within the hybridization buffer with the anti-sense probe towards has-miR-146a-5p labeled with Cyanine 5 (500 nM), and the sign was amplified by incubating in a single day at 40 ℃. Following a ten min washing with sodium citrate buffers of two × concertration, 1 × concertration and 0.5 × concertration, the slices have been then subjected to a 30 min incubated in BSA at RT. Afterward, the slices have been noticed underneath a NIKON digital sight DS-FI2 (Nikon, Japan), and pictures have been collected.

Statistical evaluation

GraphPad Prism software program 8.0 was used for statistical analyses. A two-tailed unpaired Scholar’s t-test was carried out for comparability between two teams. One-way ANOVA was used to check amongst three or extra teams. The information are expressed because the means ± SD and P < 0.05 was thought of statistically vital (*P < 0.05, **P < 0.01, ***P < 0.001, ****P < 0.0001).


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